Filling the heating system with water or coolant
- Periodicity of coolant replacement
- Water or coolant: choose the optimal filling system
- Technology drain water cleaning heating pipes
- Filling methods - built-in mechanism and pumps
- Filling heating antifreeze
- Automatic filling system
- Heating system pressing
- Quality control of heating filling
- Open heating system
- How to add coolant
- Closed heating system
- Open heating system
The operation of the heating system is a coordinated mechanism, the reliability and effectiveness of which depends on its components. The main one of them is considered the coolant - a liquid that provides the transfer of thermal energy from the boiler to the room of the house. To do this, you must correctly fill the closed heating system with water or coolant. What is the specificity of this procedure and how to do it correctly?
Periodicity of coolant replacement
Closed heating system with connection to the water supply
During the heating season, even initially high-quality coolant gradually loses its properties. This is due to the periodic change in its temperature, as a result of which a precipitate is released (for water) or a change in the viscosity of the substance (synthetic heat transfer fluids). If the heating system is not filled with the heating medium in time, the following negative points can occur:
- Reducing the efficiency of the heating. This is a consequence of a decrease in the efficiency of heat transfer due to the presence of extraneous elements in the fluid - lime sludge and rust.
- The probability of failure of the boiler heating, radiators and valves. Only filling the heating with coolant can avoid such problems. This is due to the gradual saturation of water with oxygen, as a result of which foaming increases and corrosive processes on the inner surface of the steel elements of the system are significantly accelerated.
Timely filling with water of a closed heating system may be different in time. It all depends on the composition of the coolant and the temperature of the boiler. For distilled water, the optimal replacement frequency is 1 year, i.e. before each heating season. In the case of the use of coolants based on ethylene glycol, propylene glycol or glycerin, the service time is from 3 to 7 years. It depends on the concentration of chemical components - the more of them in the total volume, the longer the liquid will serve.
However, before filling the closed heating system with water, you need to decide on the type of coolant - it will be ordinary H2O or advanced liquids.
In order to fill or add antifreeze to the heating system of a double-circuit boiler, you need to find out if it can be done. Boiler manufacturers indicate solutions that can fill the heating system.
Water or coolant: choose the optimal filling system
Antifreeze for heating system
The optimal composition of the liquid should be determined by the parameters of the heating system. Often the heating system is filled with water, as it has a number of significant advantages. Affordable cost is decisive - simple tap water is often taken. However, this is fundamentally wrong. A large number of elements of metal and alkali will contribute to the formation of growth on the inner walls of pipes and radiators. This leads to a decrease in bore diameter, an increase in hydraulic losses in certain sections of the highway.
But how to fill a closed heating system with water to avoid such troubles? Experts recommend the use of distilled water. It is as clean as possible from impurities, which affects the better on its physical and operational properties.
- Energy intensity. Water accumulates heat well in order to subsequently transfer it to the premises;
- Minimum viscosity index. This is important for closed heating systems with forced circulation and affects the power of the centrifugal pump;
- As the pressure in the pipes increases, the boiling point shifts upward. Those. in fact, the process of transition from a liquid to a gaseous state occurs at a temperature of 110 ° C. It gives the chance to use the high-temperature modes of heating.
But if there is a likelihood of exposure to negative temperatures, then water, as a liquid for filling heating systems, is unacceptable. In this case, antifreeze should be used, in which the crystallization threshold is significantly lower than 0 ° C. The best option - solutions of propylene glycol or glycerin with special additives. They belong to the class of harmless substances and are used in the food industry. Ethylene glycol based solutions have the best technical qualities. Until recently, they filled the closed heating system. However, they are extremely harmful to humans. Therefore, despite all their positive qualities, it is not recommended to use ethylene glycol antifreeze.
But how can you fill the heating system - water or antifreeze? If there is no likelihood of exposure to low temperature, the best choice would be water. Otherwise, it is recommended to use solutions of special coolant.
Automobile antifreeze can not be poured into the heating system. This will lead not only to the failure of the boiler and the failure of radiators, but also to be dangerous to health.
Technology drain water cleaning heating pipes
Drain cock in the heating system
Before filling the heating system of a double-circuit boiler, it is necessary to drain the old coolant. This procedure is mandatory and, despite its apparent simplicity, must be carried out according to a specific technological scheme. You must first turn off the heating and wait for the water temperature to drop to room temperature. Only then can the closed heating system be properly filled with distilled water.
Then the drain valve opens, located at the lowest point of the system. After waiting for the water to drain, you need to open the Mayevsky valve, which is located at the top of the circuit. This is necessary to stabilize the pressure in the pipes. After performing these jobs, the system must be flushed. This is done before the heating system in the private house is filled. To do this, you must use special tools and equipment. A pump is connected to the heating circuit, which pumps the flushing fluid into the heating system. It also has a damaging effect on deposits in pipes. After several cycles of passing along with the liquid, the contaminating elements are removed.
Used liquid should not be drained into the sewer system. It should be collected in sealed containers, which are subsequently disposed of by special companies.
Filling methods - built-in mechanism and pumps
Pump to fill the heating
How to fill the heating system in a private house - using the built-in water connection using a pump? It directly depends on the coolant composition - water or antifreeze. For the first option, it is enough to pre-flush the pipes. Instructions for filling the heating system consists of the following points:
- It is necessary to make sure that all stop valves are in the correct position - the drain valve is also closed as safety valves;
- Mayevsky's crane at the top of the system should be open. This is necessary to remove air;
- The water is filled until such time as water flows from the Mayevsky tap, opened earlier. After that overlaps;
- Then it is necessary to remove excess air from all heating devices. They must be installed air valve. To do this, you need to leave the faucet filling system open, make sure that the air comes out of a particular device. As soon as water flows from the valve, it should be shut off. This procedure must be done for all heating appliances.
After the water has been filled in the closed heating system, it is necessary to check the pressure parameters. It should be 1.5 bar. In the future, to prevent leakage is pressing. About it will be discussed separately.
Filling heating antifreeze
Before you begin the procedure of adding antifreeze to the system, you need to prepare it. Usually 35% or 40% solutions are used, but for economy it is recommended to purchase a concentrate. It should be diluted strictly according to the instructions, and only using distilled water. In addition, you must prepare a hand pump to fill the heating system. It is connected to the lowest point of the system and with the help of a hand piston, heat carrier is injected into the pipes. During this it is necessary to monitor the following parameters.
- Air outlet from the system (Mayevsky's crane);
- Pressure in the pipes. It must not exceed 2 bar.
The whole further procedure is completely similar to the one described above. However, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of antifreeze operation - its density is much higher than that of water. Therefore, special attention should be paid to calculating the pump power. Some formulations based on glycerin may increase the viscosity coefficient with increasing temperature.
Before pouring antifreeze, it is necessary to replace the rubber gaskets at the joints with paronitic ones. This will significantly reduce the likelihood of leaks.
Automatic filling system
For double-circuit boilers it is recommended to use the device for automatic filling of the heating system. It is an electronic control unit for adding water to the pipes. It is installed at the inlet and is fully automatic.
The main advantage of this device is the automatic maintenance of pressure by the method of timely adding water to the system. The principle of operation of the device is as follows: a pressure gauge connected to the control unit sends a signal of a critical pressure drop. The automatic water supply valve opens and remains in this state until the pressure stabilizes. However, almost all devices for automatic filling of the heating system with water are expensive.
The budget option is to install a check valve. Its functions are completely analogous to the automatic filling of the heating system. It is also installed on the inlet nozzle. However, its principle of operation is to stabilize the pressure in pipes with a water make-up system. If the pressure in the line drops, the pressure of the tap water will act on the valve. Due to the difference, it will automatically open until the pressure stabilizes.
In this way, it is possible not only to feed the heating, but also to fully fill the system. Despite the apparent reliability, it is recommended to visually monitor the flow of coolant. When heating water is filled, the valves on the devices for the release of excess air must be opened.
Heating system pressing
Heating system pressing
Before filling the heating system with coolant, it is necessary to check the tightness of all joints and connections. To do this, pressing is performed - creating an overpressure in the pipes, i.e. artificially creates a situation of destabilization of the system.
This can be done in two ways - by forcing air or coolant. This is necessarily done even before the heating system of a double-circuit boiler is filled. This procedure can be performed using a mechanical (electrical) pump or by connecting the water supply. The latter option is not recommended, as it will be very difficult to control the process. The order of execution is as follows:
- Preliminary visual inspection of joints and connecting nodes;
- Connecting the mechanism to the inlet of the system;
- Creating an overpressure, the value of which should exceed the norm by 1.5 times.
Be sure to check the status of the heating elements. In the event of a leakage, the process immediately stops and can begin only when the defect is eliminated.
Quality control of heating filling
Before filling the closed heating system with water, you need to make sure that all protective elements are present. These include Mayevsky's taps, bypasses, and control devices — thermometers and pressure gauges. They are necessary not only to control the pressure in the pipes during the supply of coolant, but also are the main safety measures during operation of the heating. This is how you can properly fill the radiator with water.
During proper filling of a closed system with water, the following parameters should be monitored:
- Pressure. Pressure gauges must be installed at key points in the system - extreme radiators, and the highest point. After the final air outlet, the pressure on all gauges should be the same;
- No leakage.
Only in this way can a stable pressure be achieved. However, the main verification process occurs during boiler start up. Temperature expansion of water at maximum operation should not affect the integrity of the piping of heating elements.
Open heating system
Open heating system
If an open type heating system is filled in a private house, the order of work is somewhat different. The peculiarity is that the pressure in the pipes is equal to atmospheric. Therefore, the main control element is an expansion tank installed above other heating devices.
In this case, the procedure for filling the heating system is as follows:
- The old heat carrier is being drained and the pipes are being cleaned.
- On all heating devices opens Mayevsky's crane.
- The flow of fluid to fill the heating system can be done through the return pipe.
- As soon as all air comes out of the system, the water level in the expansion tank is checked. It must be filled to 2/3.
It is noteworthy that with the help of a hand pump used to fill the heating system, it is possible to add heat carrier.
For an open heating system, overpressure is not allowed. Otherwise, this may lead to incorrect temperature conditions.
How to add coolant
In addition to the instructions for filling the heating system, it is necessary to know the correctness of the procedure for adding a coolant. This situation may occur 2 or 3 times during the heating season. It is important to determine in time that the volume of water has fallen below critical. Depending on the type of heating, there are different ways to fill the heating system.
Closed heating system
The main indicator is the reduction of pressure in the pipes. For timely control, several gauges are installed in the system. One of them is necessarily located immediately after the exit of the hot coolant from the boiler. You should also install a pressure gauge on the upper air valve. The pressure drop in the system is a consequence of 2 factors - the occurrence of an emergency situation (leakage) or the natural evaporation of a liquid. If this process occurs very quickly - most likely a pipe breakthrough has occurred. A gradual decrease in pressure indicates a second factor.
The method of adding fluid completely repeats the procedure for filling with water of any closed heating system. To do this, you can use hand pumps to fill the heating system (antifreeze), or use the central water supply.
Open heating system
It is recommended to fill the open heating system with water through the expansion tank. This can be done even with relatively high water temperatures in the pipes. This method has several advantages - control of the coolant level in the system during filling and improving circulation due to the difference in the density of water.
There is a danger of failure of the boiler or radiators if additional filling of the open heating system with coolant occurs when the boiler is working. Therefore, this procedure is recommended to be carried out when water in pipes at room temperature is reached.
To select antifreeze, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the video.What is the specificity of this procedure and how to do it correctly?
But how to fill a closed heating system with water to avoid such troubles?
But how can you fill the heating system - water or antifreeze?